CCIE R&S Blueprint | CCIE BLOG

By + | December 30, 2014


This expanded blueprint is from  If your studying for CCIE then you know what how daunting a task it is.  The below can be used as a checklist for your studies.

As many of you hopefully already know, the CCIE Routing & Switching certification blueprint is changing from version 4 to version 5 on June 3rd 2014. As this date quickly approaches, and as the last of the v4 lab seats are fully booked, it’s time to start planning your attack on the RSv5 blueprint.

While Cisco’s official blueprint for v5 is now more detailed that it has ever been in the past, it still lacks some details in certain areas, for example “Implement, optimize and troubleshoot filtering with any routing protocol.” Additionally it would be difficult to use Cisco’s blueprint for a study plan as it stands in its current linear format. For example “Layer 3 multicast” is listed before “Fundamental routing concepts”, which from a learning perspective doesn’t make sense, because you must understand unicast routing fully before you learn multicast routing. To help remedy this we’ve re-ordered and expanded Cisco’s blueprint into INE’s RSv5 Expanded Blueprint, which you can find below after the jump.

Our CCIE RSv5 Expanded Blueprint is meant to be used as a checklist that you can use as you go through your preparation. This way when you’re finally ready to attempt the lab exam, you can be assured that you’ve at least heard of all the topics in the scope, regardless of how obscure some of them might be. Additionally note that some topics listed below might appear only on the written exam and not the lab exam, such as MPLS Layer 2 VPNs or RIPng, but are still included in our content and the outline below.

The below outline will continue to be updated, so check back periodically during your preparation to see changes, adds, and removes.  Good luck in your studies!

INE’s CCIE RSv5 Expanded Blueprint

Release Notes

Note: Topics in strikethrough have been removed.
Topics with * are covered in the Written Exam only.

Edit 2014-04-21 – Removed the following topics:

802.1q Tunneling
Flex Links
Router IP Traffic Export (RITE)

Edit 2014-04-21 – Marked the following topics as Written Exam Only:

Performance Routing (PfR) *
IPv6 Tunneling *
RIPng *
AToM *
L2TPV3 *
IPv6 Multicast Routing *
Layer 2 QoS *
802.1x *
RSv5 Expanded Blueprint

1. LAN Switching
1.1. VLANs & Trunking
1.1.1. Standard VLANs
1.1.2. Extended VLANs
1.1.3. VLAN Database
1.1.4. Access Ports
1.1.5. 802.1q Trunk Ports
1.1.6. 802.1q Native VLAN
1.1.7. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)
1.1.8. Trunking Allowed List
1.2. VTP
1.2.1. VTP Version 1, 2, & 3
1.2.2. VTP Authentication
1.2.3. VTP Pruning
1.2.4. VTP Prune Eligible List
1.2.5. VTPv3 & Private VLANs
1.3. EtherChannels
1.3.1. Static Layer 2 EtherChannels
1.3.2. PAgP
1.3.3. LACP
1.3.4. Layer 3 EtherChannel
1.3.5. EtherChannel Load Balancing
1.3.6. EtherChannel Protocol Limiting
1.3.7. EtherChannel Misconfig Guard
1.4. Spanning-Tree Protocol
1.4.1. PVST+ STP Root Bridge Election STP Path Selection with Port Cost STP Path Selection with Port Priority STP Convergence Timers
1.4.2. Optional STP Features PortFast UplinkFast BackboneFast BPDU Guard BPDU Filter Root Guard
1.4.3. Rapid-PVST+ RSTP Convergence Optimizations Edge Ports
1.4.4. Multiple STP MST Root Bridge Election MST Path Selection with Port Cost MST Path Selection with Port Priority MST and CST/PVST+ Interoperability Multi-Region MST
1.5. 802.1q Tunneling
1.5.1. L2 Protocol Tunneling
1.5.2. Layer 2 MTU
1.5.3. EtherChannel over 802.1q Tunneling
1.6. Miscellaneous
1.6.1. CDP
1.6.2. LLDP
1.6.3. UDLD
1.6.4. CAM Aging Time
1.6.5. SPAN
1.6.6. RSPAN
1.6.7. ERSPAN
1.6.8. Flex Links
1.6.9. Fallback Bridging
1.6.10. Voice VLANs
1.6.11. Smartport Macros
2. Layer 2 WAN Circuits
2.1. HDLC
2.2. PPP
2.3. PPP Authentication
2.4. PPP Multilink
2.5. PPPoE
3. IP Routing
3.1. Protocol Independent IPv4 Routing
3.1.1. IPv4 Addressing
3.1.2. IPv4 ARP
3.1.3. Longest Match Routing
3.1.4. Administrative Distance
3.1.5. Static Routing
3.1.6. Route Recursion
3.1.7. Egress Interface vs. Next Hop Static Routing
3.1.8. Default Routing
3.1.9. CEF
3.1.10. Floating Static Routes
3.1.11. Backup Interface
3.1.12. IP Service Level Agreement
3.1.13. Enhanced Object Tracking
3.1.14. Policy Routing
3.1.15. Policy Routing and IP SLA
3.1.16. Local Policy Routing
3.1.17. GRE Tunnels
3.1.18. IP in IP Tunnels
3.1.19. Tunnels & Recursive Routing Errors
3.1.20. On Demand Routing
3.1.21. VRF Lite
3.1.22. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
3.1.23. Performance Routing (PfR) *
3.2. Protocol Independent IPv6 Routing
3.2.1. IPv6 Link-Local Addressing
3.2.2. IPv6 Unique Local Addressing
3.2.3. IPv6 Global Aggregatable Addressing
3.2.4. IPv6 EUI-64 Addressing
3.2.5. IPv6 Auto-Configuration / SLAAC
3.2.6. IPv6 Global Prefix
3.2.7. IPv6 Redistribution
3.2.8. IPv6 Filtering
3.2.9. IPv6 NAT-PT
3.2.10. IPv6 MP-BGP
3.2.11. IPv6 Tunneling *
3.2.12. Automatic 6to4 Tunneling*
3.2.13. ISATAP Tunneling *
3.3. Common Dynamic Routing Features
3.3.1. Distance Vector vs. Link State vs. Path Vector routing protocols
3.3.2. Passive Interfaces
3.3.3. Routing Protocol Authentication
3.3.4. Route Filtering
3.3.5. Auto Summarization
3.3.6. Manual Summarization
3.3.7. Route Redistribution Prefix Filtering with Route Tagging Prefix Filtering with Manual Lists Prefix Filtering with Administrative Distance Administrative Distance Based Loops Metric Based Loops
3.4. RIP
3.4.1. RIPv2 Initialization Enabling RIPv2 RIP Send and Receive Versions Split Horizon RIPv2 Unicast Updates RIPv2 Broadcast Updates RIPv2 Source Validation Path Selection Offset List Summarization Auto-Summary Manual Summarization Authentication Clear Text MD5 Convergence Optimization & Scalability RIPv2 Convergence Timers RIPv2 Triggered Updates Filtering Filtering with Passive Interface Filtering with Prefix-Lists Filtering with Standard Access-Lists Filtering with Extended Access-Lists Filtering with Offset Lists Filtering with Administrative Distance Filtering with Per Neighbor AD Default Routing RIPv2 Default Routing RIPv2 Conditional Default Routing RIPv2 Reliable Conditional Default Routing
3.4.2. RIPng * RIPng Overview *
3.5. EIGRP
3.5.1. Initialization Network Statement Multicast vs. Unicast Updates EIGRP Named Mode EIGRP Multi AF Mode EIGRP Split Horizon EIGRP Next-Hop Processing
3.5.2. Path Selection Feasibility Condition Modifying EIGRP Vector Attributes Classic Metric Wide Metric Metric Weights Equal Cost Load Balancing Unequal Cost Load Balancing EIGRP Add-Path
3.5.3. Summarization Auto-Summary Manual Summarization Summarization with Default Routing Summarization with Leak Map Summary Metric
3.5.4. Authentication MD5 HMAC SHA2-256bit Automatic key rollover
3.5.5. Convergence Optimization & Scalability EIGRP Convergence Timers EIGRP Query Scoping with Summarization EIGRP Query Scoping with Stub Routing Stub Routing with Leak Map Bandwidth Pacing IP FRR Graceful Restart & NSF
3.5.6. Filtering Filtering with Passive Interface Filtering with Prefix-Lists Filtering with Standard Access-Lists Filtering with Extended Access-Lists Filtering with Offset Lists Filtering with Administrative Distance Filtering with Per Neighbor AD Filtering with Route Maps Per Neighbor Prefix Limit Redistribution Prefix Limit
3.5.7. Miscellaneous EIGRP EIGRP Default Network EIGRP Default Metric EIGRP Neighbor Logging EIGRP Router-ID EIGRP Maximum Hops no next-hop-self no-ecmp-mode EIGRP Route Tag Enhancements
3.5.8. EIGRPv6 Enabling EIGRPv6 EIGRPv6 Split Horizon EIGRPv6 Next-Hop Processing EIGRPv6 Authentication EIGRPv6 Metric Manipulation EIGRPv6 Default Routing EIGRPv6 Summarization EIGRPv6 Prefix Filtering EIGRPv6 Stub Routing EIGRPv6 Link Bandwidth EIGRPv6 Timers EIGRP IPv6 VRF Lite EIGRP Over The Top
3.6. OSPF
3.6.1. Initialization Network Statement Interface Statement
3.6.2. Network Types Broadcast Non-Broadcast OSPF DR/BDR Election Manipulation Point-to-Point Point-to-Multipoint Point-to-Multipoint Non-Broadcast Loopback LSA Types OSPF Next-Hop Processing Unicast vs. Multicast Hellos
3.6.3. Path Selection Auto-Cost Cost Bandwidth Per-Neighbor Cost Non-Backbone Transit Areas Virtual-Links
3.6.4. Authentication Area Interface level Clear Text MD5 Null MD5 with Multiple Keys SHA1-196 Virtual link
3.6.5. Summarization Internal Summarization External Summarization Path Selection with Summarization Summarization and Discard Routes
3.6.6. Stub Areas Stub Areas Totally Stubby Areas Not-So-Stubby Areas Not-So-Stubby Areas and Default Routing Not-So-Totally-Stubby Areas Stub Areas with Multiple Exit Points NSSA Type-7 to Type-5 Translator Election NSSA Redistribution Filtering
3.6.7. Filtering Filtering with Distribute-Lists Filtering with Administrative Distance Filtering with Route-Maps Filtering with Summarization LSA Type-3 Filtering Forwarding Address Suppression NSSA ABR External Prefix Filtering Database Filtering
3.6.8. Default Routing Default Routing Conditional Default Routing Reliable Conditional Default Routing Default Cost
3.6.9. Convergence Optimization & Scalability Interface Timers Fast Hellos LSA & SPF Throttling LSA & SPF Pacing Single Hop LFA / IP FRR Multihop LFA Stub Router Advertisement Demand Circuit Flooding Reduction Transit Prefix Filtering Resource Limiting Graceful Restart & NSF Incremental SPF
3.6.10. Miscellaneous OSPF Features
3.6.11. OSPFv3 LSA Types OSPFv3 OSPFv3 Network Types OSPFv3 Prefix Suppression OSPFv3 Virtual Links OSPFv3 Summarization OSPFv3 IPsec Authentication OSPFv3 Multi AF Mode TTL Security
3.7. BGP
3.7.1. Establishing Peerings iBGP Peerings EBGP Peerings Update Source Modification Multihop EBGP Peerings Neighbor Disable-Connected-Check Authentication TTL Security BGP Peer Groups 4 Byte ASNs Active vs. Passive Peers Path MTU Discovery Multi Session TCP Transport per AF Dynamic BGP Peering
3.7.2. iBGP Scaling Route Reflectors Route Reflector Clusters Confederations
3.7.3. BGP Next Hop Processing Next-Hop-Self Manual Next-Hop Modification Third Party Next Hop Next Hop Tracking Conditional Next Hop Tracking BGP Next-Hop Trigger Delay
3.7.4. BGP NLRI Origination Network Statement Redistribution BGP Redistribute Internal Conditional Advertisement Conditional Route Injection
3.7.5. BGP Bestpath Selection Weight Local Preference AS-Path Prepending Origin MED Always Compare MED Deterministic MED AS-Path Ignore Router-IDs DMZ Link Bandwidth Maximum AS Limit Multipath
3.7.6. BGP Aggregation BGP Auto-Summary Aggregation Summary Only Suppress Map Unsuppress Map AS-Set Attribute-Map Advertise Map
3.7.7. BGP Communities Standard Extended No-Advertise No-Export Local-AS Deleting
3.7.8. Filtering Prefix-Lists Standard Access-Lists Task Extended Access-Lists Maximum Prefix BGP Regular Expressions Outbound Route Filtering (ORF) Soft Reconfiguration Inbound
3.7.9. AS-Path Manipulation Local AS Local AS Replace-AS/Dual-AS Remove Private AS Allow AS In AS Override
3.7.10. BGP Convergence Optimization BGP Timers Tuning BGP Fast Fallover BGP Prefix Independent Convergence (PIC) BGP Dampening BGP Dampening with Route-Map BGP Add Path
3.7.11. BGP Default Routing
3.7.12. IPv6 BGP
3.7.13. Misc BGP iBGP Synchronization BGP over GRE BGP Backdoor
3.8. Route Redistribution
3.8.1. Metric Based Loops
3.8.2. Administrative Distance Based Loops
3.8.3. Route Tag Filtering
3.8.4. IP Route Profile
3.8.5. Debug IP Routing
3.9. Miscellaneous Routing Features
3.10. IS-IS *
4. VPN
4.1. MPLS
4.1.1. VRF Lite
4.1.2. MPLS LDP
4.1.3. MPLS Ping
4.1.4. MPLS Traceroute
4.1.5. MPLS Label Filtering
4.1.6. MP-BGP VPNv4
4.1.7. MP-BGP Prefix Filtering
4.1.8. PE-CE Routing with RIP
4.1.9. PE-CE Routing with OSPF
4.1.10. OSPF Sham-Link
4.1.11. PE-CE Routing with EIGRP
4.1.12. EIGRP Site-of-Origin
4.1.13. PE-CE Routing with BGP
4.1.14. BGP SoO Attribute
4.1.15. Internet Access
4.1.16. Route Leaking
4.1.17. MPLS VPN Performance Tuning
4.1.18. AToM *
4.1.19. L2TPV3 *
4.1.20. VPLS *
4.2. IPsec LAN-to-LAN
4.2.1. ISAKMP Policies
4.2.2. PSK Authentication
4.2.3. Static Crypto Maps
4.2.4. IPsec over GRE
4.2.5. Static VTI
4.2.6. GETVPN *
4.3. DMVPN
4.3.1. Single Hub
4.3.2. NHRP
4.3.3. DMVPN Phase 1, 2, & 3
4.3.4. QoS Profiles
4.3.5. QoS Pre-Classify
5. Multicast
5.1. Layer 2 Multicast
5.1.1. IGMPv1, IGMPv2, IGMPv3
5.1.2. IGMP Snooping
5.1.3. IGMP Querier Election
5.1.4. IGMP Filtering
5.1.5. IGMP Proxy
5.1.6. IGMP Timers
5.1.7. Multicast VLAN Registration
5.1.8. IGMP Profiles
5.2. IPv4 Multicast Routing
5.2.1. PIM Dense Mode
5.2.2. PIM Sparse Mode
5.2.3. PIM Sparse Dense Mode
5.2.4. Static RP
5.2.5. Auto-RP Auto-RP Sparse Dense Mode Auto-RP Listener Multiple Candidate RPs Filtering Candidate RPs RP & MA placement problems
5.2.6. Bootstrap Router BSR Multiple RP Candidates Multiple BSR Candidates
5.2.7. Source Specific Multicast
5.2.8. Bidirectional PIM
5.2.9. Group to RP Mapping
5.2.10. Anycast RP
5.2.11. MSDP
5.2.12. MSDP SA Filtering
5.2.13. Multicast TTL Scoping
5.2.14. Auto-RP & BSR Boundary Filtering
5.2.15. PIM Accept Register Filtering
5.2.16. PIM Accept RP Filtering
5.2.17. RPF Failure
5.2.18. Registration Failure
5.2.19. PIM DR Election
5.2.20. PIM DF Election
5.2.21. PIM Assert
5.2.22. Static Multicast Routes
5.2.23. Multicast BGP
5.2.24. PIM NBMA Mode
5.2.25. Multicast over GRE
5.2.26. Stub Multicast Routing
5.2.27. Multicast Helper Map
5.2.28. Multicast Rate Limiting
5.2.29. Multicast BGP
5.3. IPv6 Multicast Routing *
5.3.1. IPv6 PIM and MLD *
5.3.2. IPv6 PIM BSR *
5.3.3. IPv6 Embedded RP *
5.3.4. IPv6 SSM *
6. QoS
6.1. Hold-Queue and Tx-Ring
6.2. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
6.3. Selective Packet Discard
6.4. Payload Compression on Serial Links
6.5. Generic TCP/UDP Header Compression
6.6. MLP Link Fragmentation and Interleaving
6.7. MQC Classification and Marking
6.8. MQC Bandwidth Reservations and CBWFQ
6.9. MQC Bandwidth Percent
6.10. MQC LLQ and Remaining Bandwidth Reservations
6.11. MQC WRED
6.12. MQC Dynamic Flows and WRED
6.13. MQC WRED with ECN
6.14. MQC Class-Based Generic Traffic Shaping
6.15. MQC Class-Based GTS and CBWFQ
6.16. MQC Single-Rate Three-Color Policer
6.17. MQC Hierarchical Policers
6.18. MQC Two-Rate Three-Color Policer
6.19. MQC Peak Shaping
6.20. MQC Percent-Based Policing
6.21. MQC Header Compression
6.22. Voice Adaptive Traffic Shaping
6.23. Voice Adaptive Fragmentation
6.24. Advanced HTTP Classification with NBAR
6.22. Layer 2 QoS *
7. Security
7.1. Layer 2 Security
7.1.1. Port Protection
7.1.2. Private VLANs
7.1.3. Port Based ACLs
7.1.4. VLAN ACLs for IP Traffic
7.1.5. VLAN ACLs for Non-IP Traffic
7.1.6. Storm Control
7.1.7. Port Security
7.1.8. HSRP and Port-Security
7.1.9. ErrDisable Recovery
7.1.10. DHCP Snooping
7.1.11. DHCP Snooping and the Information Option
7.1.12. Dynamic ARP Inspection
7.1.13. IP Source Guard
7.1.14. 802.1x *
7.2. Management Plane Security
7.2.1. AAA Authentication Lists
7.2.2. AAA Exec Authorization
7.2.3. AAA Local Command Authorization
7.2.4. Controlling Terminal Line Access
7.2.5. IOS Login Enhancements
7.2.6. IOS Resilient Configuration
7.2.7. Role-Based CLI
7.2.8. AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS *
7.3. Control Plane Security
7.3.1. Controlling the ICMP Messages Rate
7.3.2. Control Plane Policing
7.3.3. Control Plane Protection (CPPr)
7.3.4. Control Plane Host
7.4. Data Plane Security
7.4.1. Traffic Filtering Using Standard Access-Lists
7.4.2. Traffic Filtering Using Extended Access-Lists
7.4.3. Traffic Filtering Using Reflexive Access-Lists
7.4.4. IPv6 Traffic Filter
7.4.5. Filtering Fragmented Packets
7.4.6. Filtering Packets with Dynamic Access-Lists
7.4.7. Filtering Traffic with Time-Based Access Lists
7.4.8. Traffic Filtering with Policy-Based Routing
7.4.9. Preventing Packet Spoofing with uRPF
7.4.10. Using NBAR for Content-Based Filtering
7.4.11. TCP Intercept
7.4.12. TCP Intercept Watch Mode
7.4.13. Packet Logging with Access-Lists
7.4.14. IP Source Tracker
7.4.15. Router IP Traffic Export (RITE)
7.4.16. IOS ACL Selective IP Option Drop
7.4.17. Flexible Packet Matching
7.4.18. IPv6 First Hop Security RA guard DHCP guard Binding table Device tracking ND inspection/snooping Source guard PACL
8. System Management
8.1. Device Management
8.1.1. Console
8.1.2. Telnet Telnet Service Options
8.1.3. SSH
8.1.4. Terminal Line Settings
8.1.5. HTTP Server and Client
8.1.6. FTP Server and Client
8.1.7. TFTP Server and Client
8.1.8. SNMP SNMPv2 Server SNMPv2c Access Control SNMP Traps and Informs CPU and Memory Thresholds SNMPv3 SNMP MAC Address Notifications SNMP Notifications of Syslog Messages
8.2. Logging
8.2.1. System Message Logging
8.2.2. Syslog Logging
8.2.3. Logging Counting and Timestamps
8.2.4. Logging to Flash Memory
8.2.5. Configuration Change Notification and Logging
8.2.6. Configuration Archive and Rollback
8.2.7. Logging with Access-Lists
8.3. NTP
8.3.1. NTP
8.3.2. NTP Authentication
8.3.3. NTP Access Control
8.3.4. NTP Version 3 & 4
8.4. EEM
8.4.1. KRON Command Schedule
8.4.2. EEM Scripting: Interface Events
8.4.3. EEM Scripting: Syslog Events
8.4.4. EEM Scripting: CLI Events
8.4.5. EEM Scripting: Periodic Scheduling
8.4.6. EEM Scripting: Advanced Features
8.4.7. EEM Applets
8.5. Miscellaneous System Management
8.5.1. Auto-Install over LAN Interfaces using DHCP
8.5.2. Auto-Install over LAN Interfaces Using RARP
8.5.3. IOS Menus
8.5.4. IOS Banners
8.5.5. Exec Aliases
8.5.6. TCP Keepalives
8.5.7. Generating Exception Core Dumps
8.5.8. Conditional Debugging
8.5.9. Tuning Packet Buffers
8.5.10. CDP
8.5.11. Remote Shell
9. Network Services
9.1. Object Tracking
9.1.1. IP SLA
9.1.2. Enhanced Object Tracking
9.1.3. Tracking Lists
9.2. First Hop Redundancy Protocols
9.2.1. HSRP
9.2.2. VRRP
9.2.3. GLBP
9.2.4. Router Redundancy and Object Tracking
9.2.5. IPv6 RS & RA Redundancy
9.3. DHCP
9.3.1. DHCP Server
9.3.2. DHCP Client
9.3.3. DHCP Relay
9.3.4. DHCP Host Pools
9.3.5. DHCP On-Demand Pool
9.3.6. DHCP Proxy
9.3.7. DHCP Information Option
9.3.8. DHCP Authorized ARP
9.3.9. SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
9.3.10. Stateful & Stateless DHCPv6
9.3.11. DHCPv6 prefix delegation
9.4. DNS
9.4.1. IOS Authoritative DNS Server
9.4.2. IOS Caching DNS Server
9.4.3. IOS DNS Spoofing
9.5. NAT
9.5.1. Basic NAT
9.5.2. NAT Overload
9.5.3. NAT with Route Maps
9.5.4. Static NAT
9.5.5. Static PAT
9.5.6. Static NAT and IP Aliasing
9.5.7. Static Policy NAT
9.5.8. NAT with Overlapping Subnets
9.5.9. TCP Load Distribution with NAT
9.5.10. Stateful NAT with HSRP
9.5.11. Stateful NAT with Primary/Backup
9.5.12. NAT Virtual Interface
9.5.13. NAT Default Interface
9.5.14. Reversible NAT
9.5.15. Static Extendable NAT
9.5.16. NAT ALG
9.6. Traffic Accounting
9.6.1. IP Precedence Accounting
9.6.2. IP Output Packet Accounting
9.6.3. IP Access Violation Accounting
9.6.4. MAC Address Accounting
9.7. NetFlow
9.7.1. Netflow v5 & v9
9.7.2. Netflow Ingress and Egress
9.7.3. Netflow Top Talkers
9.7.4. Netflow Aggregation Cache
9.7.5. Netflow Random Sampling
9.7.6. Netflow Input Filters
9.7.7. Netflow Export
9.8. Miscellaneous Network Services
9.8.1. Proxy ARP
9.8.2. IRDP
9.8.3. Router ICMP Settings TCP Optimization
9.8.4. IOS Small Services and Finger
9.8.5. Directed Broadcasts and UDP Forwarding
9.8.6. NBAR Protocol Discovery
9.8.7. IP Event Dampening
9.8.8. Conditional Debugging
9.8.9. Embedded Packet Capture
9.8.10. Interpreting Packet Captures
Tags: blueprint, expanded, rsv5


About Jeremy Cissell -A results-driven IT professional with experience in Cisco Data Systems, Network Administration, Cabling & Infrastructure, Information Systems Project Management & Support.Network Consultant located in Louisville, Kentucky. You can also find me on Twitter, Google+, or Manta.

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